There is disagreement among speakers over some of these forms. The Basic Numbers are listed in Table 1. The current volume contains a selection of papers presented at the workshop. Abui tanga heateng ananra: Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures It is not clear how ordinals of multiples of ten, hundred or a thousand would be formed, as these do not arise often in natural speech, and Indonesian forms tend to be used when the need arises.
In contrast, the Abui distributive pattern for numerals up to six is irregular; although the partial reduplication of numerals higher than six is analogous to related languages Klamer et al. The classifier follows the head noun and is followed by the numeral. Both languages also index objects via prefixes on the verb. Huber, Juliette, , A grammar of Makalero: Laidig, , A synopsis of Larike phonology and syntax. Berlin and New York:
That said, ubu is different from tupu and kupu, in the sense that it refers to something that is heaped neatly. Some enumerated nouns can optionally be preceded by the classifier boto; this word has no known meaning as an independent noun.
This is shown in 33 — 35 below in which a non-singular reading is impossible when a singular clitic is used, and visa-versa: INCL tamarind cluster two or what like. For instance, Adang has 14 classifiers while Kamang has only 2.
Comparing numeral classifiers in these two Papuan outlier languages reveals significant differences in those systems, in spite of their superficial similarities. An illustration is 1with the Teiwa general classifier bag: A comprehensive discussion of the distributive numerals erama the Alor-Pantar languages can be found in Klamer et al. Robson,Old Javanese-English Dictionary, vol.
Number in languages of East Nusantara 3 Figure 1: Numeral classifiers in Kambera Sumba Klamer In Amanuban, countability is a factor determining which classifier is used for particular referents. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia, Linguistic Society of New Guinea.
A Typology of Noun Categorization Devices. Tobelo also lacks a plural number word, but in Western Pantar, nominal plurality can be expressed analytically with the plural word marung, which cannot co-occur with numerals or classifiers.
Gil, David,Numeral Classifiers.
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Because both communities acquire numeracy skills in school, larger numbers regularly trigger code-switching into Malay. The reconstructed proto-Alor-Pantar forms Holton et al ; Schapper and Klamer are listed in the last column. In Table 5 we can see simple nominative agreement pronominals marking singular number ku- or u-non-singular ki- to- i- and ro-and neutral number no.
Number in languages of East Nusantara 5 2. The shape of the verb does not change when it is iterative. When the referent of the whole NP is definite, the numeral occurs within the NP; in contrast, when the referent is indefinite or the number denoted by the numeral is the focus of the sentence, the numeral is separated from the head noun.
Cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples, The remaining forms are derived from the base form through a consonant harmony, which assigns the base form a consonant onset homologous with the last consonant of the preceding word, e.
Finally, many languages connect counting and quantification with different culturally significant practices. Adelaar, Alexander and Nikolaus P.
This form contains a fossilized third-person prefix ga- and thus universal quantification resembles an adnominal possession construction, with gaterannang following the noun. Available online at http: A paper given at Leiden University, the Netherlands, 7 February In Sawila, cardinal numerals occur in vocative phrases, but have to accompany a proper term liaika address typically a kinship termas shown in 4a fragment taken from Acts 3: Papuan Languages of Timor-Alor-Pantar: In contrast to Tobelo, Western Pantar classifiers are in most cases optional.
Low lagi nouns, on the other hand, are typically nouns that must be measured rather than enumerated. Berlin and New York: Dimmendaal and Anne Storch, eds. Papuan Malay also has a very reduced inventory of numeral classifiers.
In addition to classifiers found in relation to meat, we also find instances where classifiers referring to specific countability and unitizing functions are used for counting the same referent. Two papers offer a broader comparative perspective.
As is standard for all verbs see section 4.
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To this root some speakers add the prefix ina- while genitive enclitics also occur in certain contexts. Their function here is to refer to a unit, consisting of a set number of component parts known to the speaker. Numeral predicates with human arguments employ the portmanteau pronominal prefix ya- which derives from the third person human plural actor prefix yo- and the third person undergoer prefix a- as in There are two patterns: The workshop, entitled Number in East Nusantara, was one of the panels held at the th 12 International Conference on Austronesian Languages, which took place in early July in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
There is also a purely number-specifying prefix that divides number in a different way to that found on the agreement clitics. They can be used for both animate humans, animals and inanimate referents.
In Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross, eds. Sawila ordinals are derived with the prefix wii- distributives with ma. There appears to be an animacy restriction on which nouns can take this classifier; only nouns denoting animals and fruit have been attested with it.
The question- answer pair below illustrates how this expression is used. The three Japanese are still alive.